So you’ve decided to become a startup CEO…

Congratulations! You’re at the head of company that’s possibly worth billions but probably doesn’t have a clue on how to make a single dollar. Never mind that small detail, now that you’re a startup CEO you can entitled to the following perks:

  • Have your mood determined by the growth/decline in your pre-launch mailing list
  • Convince yourself your startup will fail unless you spend 15 hours in the office everyday
  • Tell your friends at dinner how your startup is totally killing it, as you hungrily eye their leftovers
  • Write any (of all) of the following blog posts:
    • The golden rule I learnt after nearly one week in business
    • 10 things guaranteed to improve your personal performance
    • Why Ruby sucks and Node.js is the future
    • Why Node.js sucks and Ruby is the future
    • 8 things to get motivated (but don’t worry none of them involve working)
  • Get a heroin-like rush every time someone tweets about your product
  • Try to explain to your parents how not making money for 12 months “is the norm for startups”
  • Assure yourself that those who poke holes in your business plan “just don’t get it”
  • Submit blog post after blog post to HackerNews that sink to the bottom like a brick tied to a lead ballon (just like this one will)

I’d love to meet you on Twitter.

Posted by getchoo in Uncategorized

Buying a better lottery ticket: An interview with Rob Walling

Startup marketing is tough….really tough. Marketing an app is particularly difficult since it’s a pretty new industry and yet there’s so much competition out there. A lot of the time it’s a lottery but I’m convinced that it’s not all chance and that, as app/web developers, we can “buy a better lottery ticket”.

Rob Walling’s “Start Small, Stay Small: The Developer’s Guide To Launching A Startup”  is required reading for any developer out there who is launching a product of their own. He also has a number of successful startups.

I interviewed Rob to pick his brains about marketing and sales techniques for mobile apps.

You state in your book that every startup needs a prelaunch marketing site and a mailing list. Do you think an entrepreneur should have a pre-requisite mailing list size or conversion rate in order to validate their idea before building it?

I look at conversion rates. If you’re converting less than 10% of your traffic to emails then you’ve done something wrong. Either the idea isn’t very good or you’re not conveying it very well on the page – you’re making a big mistake somewhere. I think you should be between 10% and 30% – that’s the typical range I see. If you’re doing above 30% you’re doing really, really well.

Frankly, if I get into the twenties range, like the landing page, I have a couple of traffic sources that convert above 30% and those are the ones that I’m going to go advertise to, try to guest post on and all that stuff once we launch. So basically, if you’re doing 20% to 30% you’re doing really well but 10% to 20% is where you at least need to be.

In terms of the first part of your question where you asked do you need a certain number – I’ve seen people try to launch with 100 emails and that’s just not enough because you’re probably going to convert somewhere between 5% and 20% and so, with a hundred emails, 5 customers when you launch is not a lot of customers. I like to think in the several hundreds – I think a good goal is somewhere between 400 and 1,000.

What do you think is the best way to build a mailing list, particularly for an app?

It depends on what kind of app you’re selling. If you’re selling a game and you’re going to sell for a one time fee then you’re in a different situation then someone who’s selling a SAAS app who is going to launch and charge twenty or thirty dollars a month for the lifetime of a customer. Your lifetime value of anyone who buys your app is going to be the price of your app plus any in-app purchases there might be. So your customer lifetime value is going to be ten bucks, as compared to if you run a B2B SAAS app where your customer lifetime value should be, at a very minimum, $100 – and other values in the range of $300-$400 are not uncommon.

So you’re in a very different situation because… well, I like to say that there are marketing approaches that scale and ones that do not scale. Marketing approaches that do not scale are things like: going to forums, doing podcasts, guest blogging – very time intensive things where you can’t just turn up a dial and more traffic will come through. Things that do scale are buying ads, SEO, content marketing – done right – with viral content that has link bait, like KISSmetrics for example – those things all scale and you can go to 50,000 uniques in a month.

So the approaches outlined in my book are more aimed at businesses with a higher customer lifetime value than an iOS app. For those businesses, getting one or two emails could really be worth something whereas you need to look more at press – that’s how I think you’re going to be successful – or some type of virality, if people are compelled to share this with other people. I don’t think you’re niche enough for forums – you’re going to be HackerNews,, The Joel on Software Business of Software forums – those forums might be worth it.

The trouble with HackerNews of course is that it’s often a lottery of whether you can get upvotes or just slide down the New items page.

Yep, that’s right. I would never build a business on relying on a mention in TechCrunch or a popular post on HackerNews – [marketing] is more challenging than that, you have to get creative with it.

I’ve heard that the best way to get exposure is to do the journalist’s work for them by writing an article and feature a quote by yourself so the reader gets the impression that you’re an expert in the area. Do you think that’s a good idea?

Y’know…I’ve never done that – I’ve heard PR people say that and I’m sure it works but if you’re cold emailing someone with that then it’s a crapshoot. It’s going to be a real uphill battle because these journalists receive so many submissions. I have a blog and get a lot of pitches for guest posts and I probably don’t even get near as many pitches as they do. On almost all of those, if I haven’t heard of you and I don’t know you by name then I delete the post because I get so many of them and can’t research all of them.

I do get pitches from people that I know through Microconf or the academy, or I’ve met them and those I always consider because I know the guy is legit. If I haven’t heard of you or it’s not a referral or an introduction then I just don’t have time to do it and I bet journalists get five times the number of pitches I do. It’s a lottery.

I think I would consider two approaches that might help improve your chances. One thing is I would read the book Newsjacking, it’s a short book and it’s all about taking an event which happened today in the news and writing something about that – that somehow mentions your product or is related to your product. You can either publish on your blog and submit it to HackerNews or you could try to do the pitch idea which you just mentioned. That’s a way to evergreen news content. For example, when PRISM came out and everyone was being spied on and stuff, and let’s say I’m a security vendor or whatever and I write a really well researched article, I mean, we saw 10 articles at the top of HackerNews about PRISM that day – so if you publish a good one then it will be there, no doubt. Newsjacking goes into more detail about that.

The second thing I’d do is sign up for HARO – you sign up and you get three emails a day and there are tens of thousands of journalists who need comments in the stuff they’re writing and so they submit these requests to get “experts” opinions for their stories. It’s super time-consuming though.

You say a sales website should contain testimonials from customers but what if you’re prelaunch and don’t have any testimonials yet? How can entrepreneurs add validation to their product prelaunch?

If [the app is] a game – well I think it would give you some benefit but I don’t think it’s quite as important as someone writing a B2B app. There are two things you could do though: you could get testimonials about you, y’know that say “Gerard is the best gaming programmer I know” or “Ger made this killer game” – most people don’t read the full testimonials anyway – but that is a real testimonial and visitors will say, oh, that person endorsed him – great.

The second thing you can do is – well if you don’t have any code then its tough – but if you have anything to show anyone, give it to someone in your network and ask for their thoughts on it. If you have storyboards or screenshots or even mockups, you can get feedback from your network even on the potential of the product. Something like “Man, I’ve seen an early version of this and it looks awesome” – and that’s a testimonial and it’s true because they’ve seen it. Then, as soon as you have something that runs get it into the hands of someone and get that feedback.

So I guess you believe in revealing details on your app bit by bit rather than doing a grand unveiling like Apple?

Yeah, for sure. Apple is really the only one that does – they’re the exception to the rule in my opinion.

What are the best ways to decide on pricing a mobile app?

Well there are so many mobile apps out there, like Apple has 850,000 apps in the store right now so there’s always going to be competition and it’s such an open market out there; I think you have one of two choices. With a mobile app specifically, $4.99 is a no-brainer price and people will buy it on a whim. However, if it’s a mainstream app like Angry Birds you need to be 99c but if you’re going to be a smaller niche then you’re not going to have a ba-zillion people buying it so $4.99 is a non-brainer and $9.99 is the top end that I’ve seen so you need to be somewhere between those two.

Another approach which I’ve seen is that people try to set themselves apart and try to charge $30 or $40 just because it makes people say “Wow, this must be something really special”. I haven’t seen that work though because no-ones going to spend that amount of money on a mobile app just based on the four or five screenshots that you present in the app store and a few reviews. It’s just too hard a sell to try to do instantly, that’s why app prices are so low – that’s my take on it. I’m no expert on mobile but I do know mobile developers and that’s the experience I’ve heard.

Can a mailing list give relevant feedback on pricing prelaunch?

I’ve never asked the question “How much would you pay for this?”, I’ve asked “Would you pay X?” and then you name the price. So with my app I’m about to launch I emailed a bunch of people and asked “Would you pay $99 a month for this?” and some said Yes, some said No and then I emailed another group and asked “Would you pay $49 a month for this?” and everybody said Yes. So, for me, $49 is the no brainer price and for $99 I need a brand, more legitimacy and maybe a more mature product. So I kind of split tested it. I think if you ask them how much would they pay, I mean, has feedback been in the range $5-$10?

It’s been more in the $1-$5 range, and a few people said they would pay a bit more.

Yeah, I can understand that. I think $4.99 is probably your upper end.

Sometimes an entrepreneur does the prelaunch right but it still falls flat. For example, Dan Norris with Informly. How do you know when to stick with what you’ve got, when to pivot and when to throw in the towel?

Well that’s a broad question so it’s hard to answer with specifics. Let’s see, there’s three phases: Problem Solution Fit – someone has a problem and you’ve solved it with your software; the second phase is Product Market Fit and that means you have a product, you’ve found the market and you’ve found a way to market it to them; and the third phase is Scale – scaling it up and selling tons of them.

Getting to the very first one, meaning you have actually solved someone’s problem with your software and someone desperately needs your product – getting there is really, really hard…but then getting the Product Market Fit is really hard too.

So… it depends on where you are along that phase – if you’re still before Problem Solution Fit then I would ask questions like “How many emails do you have on your list? What was the promise you gave on that landing page?” and “Have you delivered that?”. If you got 5,000 emails, promising X and haven’t seen good sales then your app probably doesn’t do X because people don’t give their email for random reasons.

Or if you got 100 emails then your problem isn’t desperate enough or you didn’t send enough traffic to your website because 100 emails isn’t enough to validate an idea in my opinion. That’s what I’d say for the early phases. As far as throwing in the towel goes…I think people pivot and throw in the towel too much these days. I like some aspects of Lean Startup but I think it gives people too many excuses to just bail and give in and change too quickly.

I mean, I bought an app called HitTail two years ago and it took me five months to revamp and redesign it. Then, even knowing it had existing customers and knowing it solved a problem and me having the marketing knowledge I do, it took me five months of full time marketing work to get the Product Market Fit. I had the Problem Solution Fit day one and it took me five months to get to Product Market Fit…that’s a long time!

But when you look at what people do, I mean you mentioned Dan Norris with Informly. I think he pivoted within a month or two and then pivoted again within a month or two and that, in my opinion, is just too fast.

A big thank you to Rob for agreeing to do this interview. If you’re interested in testing your entrepreneurial skills from your iPhone then be sure to sign up for Hipster CEO.

Posted by getchoo in Apps, Interview, Software

The Things We Think And Do Not Say: A Startup Manifesto

So today is day zero.

The startup I worked at for the last year failed and everyone was let go.

Having worked in startups the last five years, I’ve had plenty of ideas but none which I felt were worth going full time with – until now.

So I’ve taken the plunge. But I want to do things right.

And I mean that from a lifestyle perspective.

In Jerry Maguire, Tom Cruise’s character becomes so unsatisfied with his work and the place it had left him in the world that he wrote a mission statement, outlining what he felt was wrong with his industry and how to set it right. I mean, it got him fired but it did at least resonate with Renne Zellweger so all in all I’d consider it a success.

This post serves to be my personal mission statement.

In the movie, Jerry says:

“In the quest for the big dollar, a lot of little things were going wrong”

Similarly, a lot of us get into the startup game so we can work on interesting problems and applications, as well as hoping for a nice big cheque at the end of it. But in return we give up quite a lot: time, health, friends, family. And whilst the sacrifices are often guaranteed, the rewards are not.

I’ve always believed in 37signals’ mantra that you don’t have to give up your life to work in a startup. So with this in mind I’ve written my own mission statement.

Work sane hours

I don’t know why but we have this weird badge of honour in startups about working crazy hours (like 60-100 hours per week). I’m a firm believer that after 8 hours of work in day we’re not really any more efficient – in fact it’s probably the opposite.

I’m going to work hard and I’m going to work efficiently.

I’ve done the huge hours – it doesn’t pay off; it leads to poor work and poorer health. Which brings me onto my next point.

Stay Healthy

I’m pretty good nick at the moment. I exercise regularly and eat healthily.

For me, exercise the best way to generate momentum – in everything. If I’m ever feeling a bit beaten down or demotivated I find a good trip to gym fixes all that. Now that I can work my own hours I can take midday trips to the gym when it’s quiet, which means I should be able to do whatever workout I want.

I’m lucky in that I have some money saved up so I can continue to eat good food. Tech entrepreneurs often try to cut expenditure by buying cheap food but if it makes you feel like crap then how do they think they’ll perform at work?.

If working in a startup makes me unhealthy then I don’t want to do it. End of.

Make money

Generally speaking I don’t believe in taking investment upfront for tech startups. In my opinion, a company should build a simple but useful product, target a niche and charge for it. I predict it will take about three months to build Hipster CEO and it will be a paid app from the off.

This means no huge valuations or acquisition. No million dollar contract. Just steady income from a happy user base.

Enjoy it

This links into the points about working hours and health. If you’re run down from working on your startup then you’re not going to enjoy it – no matter how interesting the domain. I know I’m going to love working on Hipster CEO because I’m passionate about startups, making apps and creating great experiences.

If those things aren’t present in your startup then I’m not sure you should be in it.

Maintain relationships

I’ve read so many times about entrepreneurs getting disconnected from their friends and family because their job is eating up all their time. I plan to dedicate myself fully to my startup but not at the cost of my social life.

My experience with startups is that the presence of friends and family is really important when the going gets tough (and it will) so isolating myself to (try) speed up development seems counter-intuitive.

I’m sure I’ll stray from the path now and then but I believe this is the right attitude to adopt for all entrepreneurs, not just me. Needless to say I’ll find out in a few months if that’s true or not.

If you’re interested in running your own startup without the risk then you should sign up for my upcoming startup simulation app for iPhone: Hipster CEO.

Posted by getchoo in Apps, Software, Startup Philosophy, Startups, Thoughts

“Sometimes an acorn is just an acorn” and 3 other startup tips

I love startups. I enjoy seeing hot new businesses burst onto the scene with a surge in popularity, though I prefer the slow and steady businesses which are making money from day one and quietly creeping up on the incumbents.

My love of the startup scene has even led me to develop a startup simulation game for iPhone. There’s no shortage of advice out there for running a startup but here’s my own two cents on the matter.

Rule #0: Don’t let your idea get carried away with itself
This is ‘rule zero’ as it comes before you’ve quit your job or spent a penny on your idea. Us startup types are easily excited and we can oftentimes blow things out of proportion – especially the possibilities for our businesses.

The majority of the failed startups that I’ve witnessed start with a simple and neat idea. Problem X isn’t being solved and Group Y would be willing to pay for it.

The trouble is: oftentimes Problem X isn’t big enough to generate enough revenue for a full time business. So instead of heading back to the drawing board, we come up with two or three phantom problems that also need to be solved and guess what? The revenue generated by solving those would be HUGE!

Except it won’t.

Because they’re not real problems.

I was guilty of this myself in my first startup: a music listing and fan engagement website for Irish music acts. At the time there was no real place to find the upcoming Irish gigs in one place online – that was the core of my idea. But a gig listing site isn’t the most interesting thing in the world so I had to build in features with which bands and venues could engage with their fans, as well as social networking features and a place that offers opinion pieces.

The gigs list got a bit of traction but, naturally enough, the rest didn’t.

From tiny acorns great oaks grow, but sometimes an acorn is just an acorn.

Rule #1: Get off Hacker News
Yup, this is gonna be a toughie but its important. Hacker News is such a huge time vacuum because:

1. It has a lot of interesting and, seemingly, relevant articles that are all about startups
2. It’s presented in a way that’s easily digested. It’s just a 20 item list but each one of those items is a trap door that could lead to an hours time wasted.

Allow yourself to check it once a day, twice at the max.

This goes for all startup related news sites too, just so it’s clear that I’m not trying to pick on HN.

Aside from time wasted as a result of distraction, I believe that sites like HN can have a detrimental affect on your psychology if you’re in a startup. Every post about how Startup X is killing it will make you question ‘Why isn’t mine?’. You should only ask yourself this question if you follow it up immediately with ‘What am I going to do about it?’.

Rule #2: Attack marketing and sales from Day One
I come from development background; I’m a real Product Guy. I used to believe that if a product is good enough then it will eventually succeed. Read this carefully:

If you don’t have an efficient marketing and sales strategy in place, your product will fail. Period.

Just like Rob Walling says in his (excellent) book Start Small, Stay Small: A Developer’s Guide to Launching a Startup :

“…a brilliant product with no market or execution is dead. A mediocre product with brilliant marketing and execution will make you money”

You don’t wait until a month before launch to do marketing. You don’t “figure out” sales as you go along. You do both from day one – have a pre-marketing site (just like my forthcoming app) and you pitch a few customers before you spend a dime on development. Be clear: ask them would they would be willing to pay how much you plan on charging for your future product? Would they be willing to pay anything at all?

A side note on this feedback gathering/early sales process: don’t talk to your friends or family. Just don’t. They love you and want to see you do well but they give the worst feedback in the world and you can hardly blame them.

Ask for their feedback but discount it – in your mind, not to their face! However, ask them if they could put you in touch with someone who you don’t know who you believe fits in your niche. Take this person out for coffee and pitch them. They don’t know you so they have nothing to lose about being up front and honest – and that’s the only feedback you can trust.

When it comes to sales, some entrepreneurs think its a good idea to give away the first few copies of their product away, and it may well be. But I’m skeptical. I’m skeptical that you won’t know when to start charging – where do you draw the line on these free copies that are going to generate a “great word of mouth buzz”?

This holds even truer if you’re coming from a technical background like me where salesmanship was never important. But wait! We’ve got a great new invention called the App Store! This allows us developer types to get experience with basic marketing, sales and pricing without ever having to talk to anyone! Hooray for introverts!

I launched my very first mobile app about two years ago. It was a really simple app that polled Twitter to rank contestants popularity in a TV talent show. A very straight forward app to develop but the lessons I learnt from a business perspective were invaluable:

  • Branding is huge: I originally ripped off the show’s official logo and sold big numbers but I quickly got a cease and desist threatening legal action if I didn’t remove the offending items. Sales dropped, big time.
  • Marketing is hard: The show in question is HUGE in Ireland and the UK. I thought media outlets would be happy to talk about my app to fill column inches. Not so. I got in touch with about thirty different print and digital publications and only one featured my app.
  • Teens will follow you back: A huge number of my sales came from Twitter. I simply looked up who followed the show on Twitter and added them. I followed various different demographics but teens definitely seem to love following back whoever follows them. I got about 2000 followers that way which led to decent sales.
  • Trying different price points is important: if you could get an extra 25% margin on your product then why not try? I actually doubled the price of my app after a week and saw an increase in sales.

Rule #3: Exercise and eat healthy
I have noticed one thing about myself in the past two years since I got my health and fitness together: all motivation begins with exercise.

Whether it’s forcing myself to start a new project or taking piano lessons, I’m always motivated after I go for a run or hit the gym.

Running a startup is a tiring business – the peaks and troughs will wear you down. You quite simply need to exercise regularly in order to think straight. Don’t be afraid to put ‘exercise’ in as a required task in your daily plan in between ‘update pitch deck’ and ‘spec out feature X’.


Lke I said, there is no shortage of advice out there for building and launching your startup but I feel the points above are either not mentioned or not covered enough (especially sales and marketing).

Hipster CEO, my new iOS game, allows players to run a company how they like but, just like real life, their business won’t last long if they don’t have a solid bottom line.

If you’re thinking about launching a startup soon then I’d love to hear about it, you can find me on Twitter.

Posted by getchoo in Apps, Software, Startups | Tagged , , , , ,

Apps are House Parties, Websites are Nightclubs

“As a freelance developer, I get asked by clients if I think they need a website or a mobile app quite often.”

I’ve written a post over at which outlines the difference between apps and websites (with a party metaphor thrown in for good measure). Read it here.

Have a great idea for an app or website that needs a great development team? Talk to us.

Follow Ger on twitter.

Posted by getchoo in Software, Thoughts | Tagged , ,

Why outsourcing abroad is bad idea

Outsourcing is the movement of a task or group of tasks to an external company as part of quality or cost reducing measures. The main reasons to outsource are:

  • Your team doesn’t have the skills (or strong enough skills) in the field
  • It’s cheaper

Outsourcing abroad is normally associated with the latter reason. Companies in places like Poland and India offer project completion at a daily rate a fraction of that offered in Ireland.

Assuming the resultant product is the same, it would seem like a no brainer to outsource abroad. Unfortunately, this very rarely turns out to be true and, just like most things in life, you get what you pay for.

For argument’s sake, let’s say you do decide to outsource abroad. You will need to provide the following to stand any chance of a successful development experience:

  • An exceptionally detailed spec which describes every possible path through the app/website; detailing every interaction big or small; validation rules whether simple or complex
  • A complete design in appropriate format (eg. A Photoshop mockup may need to be sliced up beforehand), a detailed list of interaction styling or animations
  • A comprehensive list of the devices your product needs to work on

Generally speaking, all of these things should be in a good spec anyway but my point is that it would be incredibly hard to produce such a spec without a tech-savvy guide.

I have never worked on a project that hasn’t required some common sense or applied intuition and this is one of the areas where an outsourcing company will fall down. Misspelled a word on your homepage banner in the submitted spec? The vast majority of outsource companies aren’t going to realise it needs fixing (or bother fixing it if they do – hey, you submitted the spec, it’s not their job to correct it right?).

These points are especially true (and have larger impact) if you’re building your product from scratch. Without being able to meet you in person, the outsourcers will never be able to truly “get” your product, your needs and your long term ambitions.

Again: they’ll follow the spec, down to every misspelled word.

I’ve had to take over maintenance of four outsourced projects in my time and every single one of them has been of dubious quality from a code perspective (one company even encrypted their code to try to lock in the client).

Sure, you may have saved a few bob by pushing development abroad, you may even have got a decent MVP, but chances are you’ll have to:

  1. hire the same guys again for future development (vender lock in)
  2. pay extra for a more experienced, talented development who will charge you extra for cleaning up their work

Conversely, let’s look at the benefits of working with a local developer:

  1. You can meet face to face and, after twenty minutes or so, you’ll probably know whether you have chemistry or not and whether they can fulfill your product’s ambitions
  2. It’s easier to call and verify their references
  3. They’re in your timezone so you can call between the hours of a regular working day
  4. The quality of the product is generally (many times) higher
  5. Future development shouldn’t be a problem
  6. Guidance: you’re not just dealing with a code mercenary. Companies (like us) will help guide and mould your product into being the best it can be.

“Price is what you pay. Value is what you get” is Warren Buffet’s old mantra and it holds true whether you’re buying a dinner or building software. The question is:

Do you want a Big Mac or something with a bit more sustenance?

Have a great idea for an app or website that needs a great development team? Talk to us.

Follow Ger on twitter.

Posted by Ger Kelly in Software | Tagged , ,

Technology is moving towards fashion

Absolutely fantastic quote from Evan Williams of Twitter (found here):

“As happens in most industries, value creation is moving up the stack. That is, companies make money in new technology-driven arenas at first by differentiating on performance, engineering, cost, etc. As industries evolve, core infrastructure gets built and commoditized, and differentiation moves up the hierarchy of needs from basic functionality to non-basic functionality, to design, and even to fashion. For example, there was a time when chief buying concerns included how well a watch might tell time and how durable a pair of jeans was. There is still plenty of core technology to be built for the Internet, but the fact that you can now be a fairly sizable Internet company without ever needing to own (or even look at) your server hardware means a much bigger proportion of what companies do is add value on top what’s here. And one of the most powerful ways to add value is through design.”

Posted by Ger Kelly in Thoughts | Tagged ,

Get out of the way

An important point: software is a conduit. Software has not, nor ever will, grant us the ability to do new things. It merely facilitates actions which we have been doing since the beginning of time.

iPod? Music was around before those shiny white boxes I think.

Skype? Yeah we used to enjoy an auld chat now and again too.

MS Windows? Sadists existed long before Redmond’s infernal OS.

The majority of software in the world today does not Get Out Of The Way. Good software simply lets you “do”. It doesn’t even feel like your using it. Time spent looking for a button, trying to figure out what an icon means or squinting at tiny text is time taken away from actually doing the intended task. From now on, I’m going to think of customers as do-ers instead of users.

The most memorable software out there at the moment is made by the likes of Apple and 37signals. Their software is memorable because I don’t use, I do.

Paradoxically, it leaves an impression from the lack of impression it makes.

Posted by Ger Kelly in Software | Tagged , ,